Definition, Usage, Using Adverbs in Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Tense is used to narrate an action completed in the immediate past but the effect is present. The time of action is not specific.
Usage: -
Present Perfect Tense is used to express
1.       An action occurred at an unspecified time before now. I have travelled London twenty times.
2.       An action completed recently. In this purpose ‘ the Adverb, ‘just’ is used. We have just reached Sydney. I have just received my appointment letter.
3.       An action began in the past and continues till the present. We have played for an hour.
4.       Recent news. AKP has obtained a landslide victory in Turkmenistan.
5.       An action began in the past but the result is felt till the present.  We have heard the name of Abraham Lincoln.
6.       Experience. I have been to Japan. I have been to China three times.
7.       Change over time. China has grown since it began one child policy.
8.       An action for duration from the past until now. Non Continuous Verbs are used in this purpose. I have had a cold for three weeks.

Some Important Adverbs Used in Present Perfect:-
Adverbs like lately, recently, yet, of late, already, just, often are generally used in Present Perfect Tense. I have recently met David Cameron. George has not yet reached Washington DC.
Adverbs with past meaning cannot be used in Present Perfect Tense.

Last Year vs In the Last Year: - The expressions ‘last year’ and ‘in the last year’ are very different in meaning. ‘Last year’ means the year before and indicates a specific time. Such expression needs Simple Past Tense.  But ‘In the last year’ means from 365 days ago until now. It is not a specific time describer. So it may be used in Present Perfect Tense. I have seen Jurassic Park three times in the last month.

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